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About the Fundamental Law of Inequality: June 2022

My co-author Greg Warr and I finally published our book on this subject: "Exposing Nature's Bias: the Hidden Clockwork behind Society, Life and the Universe." It is the culmination of more than 10 years of research and unifies the emergent properties of many systems but most notably, the genome.

Here's some of the story so far.

June 2022

** Availability at **

** Availability at **

May 2022

Watch how the universal symmetry of DNA gradually degrades as genomes decline in size from the extraordinary axolotl, down to the viruses such as Covid-19 which are a million times smaller.

October 2019

Strong evidence of an information-theoretical conservation principle linking all discrete systems

A complete general theory of why disparate discrete systems such as the proteome and collections of computer software share identical properties such as their length distributions. There's a lot more to come.


CoHSI V; Identical multiple scale-independent systems within genomes and computer software

The genome and hexadecimal software dumps have exactly the same information properties.


CoHSI IV; Unifying Horizontal and Vertical Gene Transfer - is Mechanism Irrelevant ?

Shows that CoHSI correctly predicts the rate at which proteins are copied across all domains of life, demonstrating that viruses are fundamental to this process.


CoHSI III: Long proteins and implications for protein evolution

Shows that the longest protein depends only on the size of the protein aggregation and demonstrates that this leaves a recognisable footprint in the phylogenetic tree including evidence of a previously undocumented mass extinction.


CoHSI II; The average length of proteins, evolutionary pressure and eukaryotic fine structure

Why protein average length is highly conserved and unusual fine structure identified in the Eukaryota.


CoHSI I; Detailed properties of the Canonical Distribution for Discrete Systems such as the Proteome

A comprehensive exploration of the properties of the CoHSI equation.


September 2017

Conservation of Hartley-Shannon Information (CoHSI) in discrete systems

The length distribution of discrete systems such as the complete Proteome, collections of Software in any language and digital Music all obey the following equation

which for components large compared with their alphabet asymptotes to a power-law

It has nothing to do with natural selection, human volition or any other action other than the natural behaviour of large random systems. It is an emergent property and in important ways, software and protein structural properties are therefore identical.


Heiland Lecture, CSM, Golden CO, 07-Mar-2018

NIST Lecture, Boulder CO, 06-Mar-2018

May 2015

Conservation of Information in Proteins

In proteins, CoHSI predicts the remarkable constancy of average protein length and also why very long proteins exist. PLOS ONE download

Like all my recent work, complete computational reproducibility packages are provided which are capable of reproducing each diagram, table and statistical result using entirely open source. As an example, for this paper it can be found at Reproducibility package

and a tutorial in how to build reproductibility packages is given here. How to build reproducibility packages

April 2014

Software's Hidden Clockwork

Just like proteins, all software systems have a hidden clockwork which forces them into the same component size distribution whatever they do, whoever wrote them and whatever technology or language was used. Just watch as 100 million lines of C, C++, Java, Fortran, Ada and Tcl-Tk asymptote to the CoHSI distribution in 1/2 million line chunks.

IEEE TSE preprint